Action Levels are (1) regulatory levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ensure compliance by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) when pesticide residues are found in foodstuffs. food or feed for reasons other than the direct use of pesticides. Unlike “tolerances” that are set for residues resulting from proper use, action levels are set for unintentional residues resulting from previous legitimate use or accidental contamination. (2) In the Superfund program, the existence of a contaminant concentration in the environment is high enough to justify action or cause a reaction under the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 and the National Oil Emergency Plan and dangerous substances. The term is also used in other regulatory programs.
Insurance is a contractual relationship that arises when one party (the insurer), for a fee (premium), agrees to compensate the other party (the insured) for losses caused to a certain subject (risk) caused by certain unforeseen circumstances (hazards or dangers). The term ‘guarantee’, commonly used in England, is considered synonymous with ‘insurance’.
The 10/10 Rule is a matter of analyzing and demonstrating the transfer of risk as a precondition for the use of reinsurance accounting, which was codified in the early 1990s with the adoption of Financial Accounting Standard (FAS) 113 (and its statutory counterpart, SSAP 62). FAS 113 itself was a response to alleged abuses and set the standard for testing whether something should be called an insurance contract. FAS 113 required that the transfer of risk be demonstrated by comparing the present value of the cash flows associated with the contract and, in particular, by exceeding certain thresholds of “significance” of risk. The thresholds, often referred to as the 9a and 9b tests, are: 9a. The reinsurer assumes significant insurance risk under the reinsured parts of the underlying insurance contracts. 9b. It is possible that the reinsurer could suffer a significant loss from the transaction. While neither “significant” nor “reasonably possible” was defined in this context, standard rules of thumb quickly emerged in the implementation of FAS 113. The most commonly cited is the “10/10 Rule”. This rule states that a contract reaches a threshold if there is at least a 10 percent chance that it will suffer a loss of 10 percent or more in present value (expressed as a percentage of the contract premium ceded).