The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is the FHWA that coordinates road transportation programs in collaboration with states and other partners to improve the nation’s safety, economic viability, quality of life, and the environment. Major program areas include the Federal Highway Assistance Program, which provides federal financial assistance to states to build and improve the national highway system, urban and rural roads, and bridges. This program provides funds for the overall improvement and development of safe highways and roads. The Federal Land Highway Program provides access to and within national forests, national parks, Indian reservations, and other public lands by preparing plans and contracts, supervising construction sites, and conducting bridge inspections and surveys. FHWA also manages a comprehensive research, development and technology program. (Source: www.transportation.gov/administrationshttps://www.transportation.gov/administrations)
Insurance is a contractual relationship that arises when one party (the insurer), for a fee (premium), agrees to compensate the other party (the insured) for losses caused to a certain subject (risk) caused by certain unforeseen circumstances (hazards or dangers). The term ‘guarantee’, commonly used in England, is considered synonymous with ‘insurance’.
The 10/10 Rule is a matter of analyzing and demonstrating the transfer of risk as a precondition for the use of reinsurance accounting, which was codified in the early 1990s with the adoption of Financial Accounting Standard (FAS) 113 (and its statutory counterpart, SSAP 62). FAS 113 itself was a response to alleged abuses and set the standard for testing whether something should be called an insurance contract. FAS 113 required that the transfer of risk be demonstrated by comparing the present value of the cash flows associated with the contract and, in particular, by exceeding certain thresholds of “significance” of risk. The thresholds, often referred to as the 9a and 9b tests, are: 9a. The reinsurer assumes significant insurance risk under the reinsured parts of the underlying insurance contracts. 9b. It is possible that the reinsurer could suffer a significant loss from the transaction. While neither “significant” nor “reasonably possible” was defined in this context, standard rules of thumb quickly emerged in the implementation of FAS 113. The most commonly cited is the “10/10 Rule”. This rule states that a contract reaches a threshold if there is at least a 10 percent chance that it will suffer a loss of 10 percent or more in present value (expressed as a percentage of the contract premium ceded).